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Speech Resources at LLCC Library

Give Credit - Use Citations

Your work for COM 112 clearly falls under the FAIR USE provision of copyright law. That means you can use the resources of others freely and without permission IF YOU...
  • give credit by using citations
  • limit the amount of material you use

Database-Generated Citations

All recommended databases include "Pre-formatted" citations. The citations created by the databases will include all the information necessary for a correct citation, BUT most database-generated citations require CORRECTIONS.

Be sure to check the citation against the desired format & your instructor's requirements.

Copyright Basics

All creations are copyrighted.

It is important to know, understand, and consider the rules for using copyrighted material whenever you draw on a resources created by someone else. The links below will help you begin understanding your responsibilities when you use copyrighted material.

This includes: 
  • articles
  • handouts
  • notes
  • assignments
  • webpages
  • images
  • artwork
  • and more

  MLA Citations

Check the citation that you create or obtain from the database against the MLA Style Formatting Guide. Use the link below to access citation formatting help at OWL - The Online Writing Lab from Purdue. Search for the specific KIND OF SOURCE on the right to see instructions and examples. 

Quick Note: (MLA style for sources from online subscription databases - OWL quoted below):

An Article from an Online Database (or Other Electronic Subscription Service)

Cite articles from online databases (e.g. LexisNexis, ProQuest, JSTOR, ScienceDirect) and other subscription services as containers. Thus, provide the title of the database italicized before the DOI or URL. If a DOI is not provided, use the URL instead. Provide the date of access if you wish.

Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. "Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates." Environmental Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. Wiley Online Library, doi:10.1002/tox.20155.

Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.” Historical Journal, vol. 50, no. 1, 2007, pp. 173-96. ProQuest, doi:10.1017/S0018246X06005966. Accessed 27 May 2009.

APA Citations

Use the link below for assistance formatting citations in APA Style

Quick Note: (the style for sources from online subscription databases - OWL quoted below):

Article from a Database

Please note: APA states that including database information in citations is not necessary because databases change over time (p. 192). However, the OWL still includes information about databases for those users who need database information.

When referencing a print article obtained from an online database (such as a database in the library), provide appropriate print citation information (formatted just like a "normal" print citation would be for that type of work). By providing this information, you allow people to retrieve the print version if they do not have access to the database from which you retrieved the article. You can also include the item number or accession number or database URL at the end, but the APA manual says that this is not required.

If you are citing a database article that is available in other places, such as a journal or magazine, include the homepage's URL. You may have to do a web search of the article's title, author, etc. to find the URL. 

For articles that are easily located, do not provide database information. If the article is difficult to locate, then you can provide database information. Only use retrieval dates if the source could change, such as Wikis. For more about citing articles retrieved from electronic databases, see pages 187-192 of the Publication Manual.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article.Title of Journal, volume number, page range. Retrieved from

Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002). A study of enjoyment of peas. Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8(3), 120-125. Retrieved from